Research Article

High Level of DDT Resistance and Reduced Susceptibility to Deltamethrin in Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzi, and Anopheles arabiensis from Urban Communities in Oyo State, South-West Nigeria  

Adedapo Olufemi Adeogun1, 2 , Kehinde Olajide Popoola2 , Adedayo Olatunbosun Oduola3 , Abiodun Kanmi Olakiigbe1 , Samson Taiwo Awolola1
1 Public Health Department, Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria
2 Entomology Unit, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
3 Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ilorin, Nigeria
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2017, Vol. 7, No. 16   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2017.07.0016
Received: 10 Jul., 2017    Accepted: 11 Aug., 2017    Published: 18 Aug., 2017
© 2017 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Adeogun A.O., Popoola K.O., Oduola A.O., Olakiigbe A.K., and Awolola T.S., 2017, High level of DDT resistance and reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin in Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzi, and Anopheles arabiensis from Urban Communities in Oyo State, South-West Nigeria, Journal of Mosquito Research, 7(16): 125-133 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2017.07.0016)


Selection of vector populations capable of withstanding doses of insecticides is a major threat facing insecticide based vector control interventions. In view of the rapidly evolving insecticide resistance in the primary vector, Anopheles, there is need to provide information on the status of insecticide resistance in Oyo State where Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets (LLIN) is the only intervention that has been deployed over the years. Morphologically identified Anopheles mosquito larva were collected from six localities (Ojoo, Iwo road, Bodija, Oluyole, Oyo town and Eruwa) in Oyo State. The larval samples were reared to adults and exposed to DDT (4%) and Deltamethrin (0.05%), according to WHO criteria. Knockdown was recorded every ten minutes and mortality scored at 24 hrs post exposure. The KDT50 and KDT95 were determined using probit regression analysis and species identification was by adult morphology and Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques. A total of 1,800 female anopheline mosquitoes were exposed to DDT and Deltamethrin insecticides. All the Anopheles mosquito populations from the six localities were resistant to DDT with 13-84% mortality. The anopheline mosquito populations from Iwo road and Oyo town were susceptible to Deltamethrin, while those from Ojoo and Eruwa showed reduced susceptibility to the insecticide. However,mosquito populations from Oluyole and Bodija were resistant to Deltamethrin. The knock down values for DDT and Deltamethrin across all sites was comparatively high indicative of some degree of selection within the populations. Of the 1,764 positively identified anophelines, 639 (36.2%), 1,034 (58.6%) and 91 (5.2%) were Anopheles coluzzi, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae s.s. respectively. This data indicates the widespread resistance of Anopheles coluzzi, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae s.s. to Dichlotrichloroethane (DDT) in Oyo State. It also showed an ongoing selection against pyrethroid which poses a major threat to the ongoing LLIN intervention in the State. 

Anopheles coluzzi; Anopheles arabiensis; Anopheles gambiae s.s.; Dichlotrichloroethane; Deltamethrin; Nigeria
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. Adedapo Olufemi Adeogun
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