Research Report

Adulticidal Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Phytolacca dodecandra on Anopheles gambiae  

J.O. Yugi1 , J.B. Okeyo-Owour2 , D.O. Omondi3
1. Department of Biological Sciences, University of Kabianga, P.O. Box 2030-20200, Kericho, Kenya
2. School of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, P.O. Box 103-40404, Rongo, Kenya
3. Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Technical Univerity, P.O. Box 210-40601, Bondo-Kenya
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2016, Vol. 6, No. 1   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2016.06.0001
Received: 11 Jan., 2016    Accepted: 22 Feb., 2016    Published: 19 Apr., 2016
© 2016 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Yugi J.O., Okeyo-Owour J.B., and Omondi D.O., 2016, Adulticidal effect of crude ethanol extract of Phytolacca dodecandra on Anopheles gambiae, Journal of Mosquito Research, 6(1): 1-5 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2016.06.0001)


Knockdown and not adulticidal effect of extracts of Phytolacca dodecandra (Endod) has been demonstrated against Anopheles gambiae adults. In this study we demonstrate adulticidal effect of ethanol extracts of mature green fruits and leaves of Endod on Anopheles gambiae adults in the laboratory.

Material & Methods: Different concentrations (80, 40, 20, 10, 10, 5 and 2.5 mg) of Ethanol extracts of leaf and mature green fruits of Endod, Neem and deltamethrin were used to impregnate standard Whatman No. 1 filter papers and wall surfaces.  Wall surfaces were modeled from plywood measuring 26 x 26 cm2. The surfaces were then smeared with a mixture of mud and cow dung, cement or used as it were (plain). Three to five day old laboratory and field sourced female An. gambiae were then exposed for five minutes, withdrawn put in clean paper cups and left to be observed for mortality after 24 hours.

Results: Mortalities of exposed female An. gambiae were higher for extracts of Endod sourced from the highlands than that from the lowlands for laboratory reared (60%) and (40%) and field sourced (30%) and (28%) respectively. Mortalities were higher on modeled surfaces (61%) than on Whatman No. 1 papers (30%). Toxicity level of extracts of Endod were below the WHO threshold of >80% mortality irrespective of part or source. Deltamethrin met the threshold on all surfaces while Neem on cement surfaces only.

Conclusion: Ethanol extracts of mature green fruits and leaves of Endod are a potential adulticide against An. gambiae adults.

Anopheles gambiae; Endod; Neem; Deltamethrin; Ethanol
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