Review and Progress

The Interaction between Aedes aegypti Gut Microbiota and Dengue Fever Virus  

Yulin Zhou
Institute of Life Science, Jiyang College of Zhejiang A&F University, Zhuji, 311800, China
Author    Correspondence author
Journal of Mosquito Research, 2024, Vol. 14, No. 1   doi: 10.5376/jmr.2024.14.0001
Received: 01 Nov., 2023    Accepted: 10 Dec., 2023    Published: 01 Jan., 2024
© 2024 BioPublisher Publishing Platform
This is an open access article published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Preferred citation for this article:

Zhou Y.L., 2024, The The interaction between Aedes aegypti gut microbiota and dengue fever virus, Journal of Mosquito Research, 14(1): 1-9 (doi: 10.5376/jmr.2024.14.0001)

Abstract

This study aims to explore the mutual influence between the gut microbiota of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and dengue fever virus. Through the analysis of microbial communities in Aedes aegypti mosquito populations from different geographical regions, significant differences in microbial composition were observed. Further research indicates a certain correlation between microbial diversity and the level of dengue fever virus infection in mosquitoes, suggesting a potentially crucial role of the microbiota in host immune regulation. Experimental evidence reveals that some microbes may positively impact inhibiting the transmission of the dengue fever virus by activating the mosquito's immune system and producing antiviral substances. The final results demonstrate a significant influence of the microbiota on the efficiency of dengue fever virus transmission. This study deepens our understanding of the interplay between Aedes aegypti and the dengue fever virus, providing new research directions for future vector control.

Keywords
Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; Interaction; Microbial community; Dengue fever virus; Vector control

Dengue fever is an acute infectious disease caused by the dengue virus, the main vector of which is the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which is considered to be an efficient transmitter of dengue viruses due to its high adaptability to urban environments, its diurnal activity, and its dependence on human blood. With global climate change and the impact of human activities, the distribution of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes has expanded, making dengue one of the global health concerns. An in-depth understanding of the interactions between Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and dengue viruses is essential for the development of effective vector control strategies (Zhang et al., 2023).

 

Microorganisms are integral components of ecosystems, and their diversity and functionality play a key role in maintaining ecological balance and biodiversity. In nature, microorganisms exist in a variety of environments, including soil, water and organisms. They are involved in a variety of ecological processes, such as material cycling and host immune regulation. They play a central role in nutrient cycling, biodiversity maintenance, and energy conversion, and provide indispensable support for the health and stability of the entire ecosystem. An in-depth understanding of the functions and interrelationships of microorganisms in ecosystems is of great significance in maintaining the ecological balance of the earth and promoting sustainable development. A deep understanding of the role of microorganisms in ecosystems helps to reveal their functions and impacts in different organisms.

 

Significant progress has been made in the study of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and dengue viruses, but the interaction between their gut microbes and dengue viruses remains an incompletely explored area (Sun et al., 2019). Gut microbes of mosquitoes can influence their immune system, physiological status, and ability to be infected by viruses. Understanding how microbes regulate host-dengue virus interactions is crucial for a deeper understanding of dengue transmission mechanisms and for finding new avenues for vector control.

 

Previous studies have revealed the potential role of microbes in other mosquito-borne diseases, such as Zika virus and malaria. By drawing on these findings, the potential mechanisms by which gut microbes of the Aedes aegypti mosquito influence dengue virus transmission were identified. A deeper understanding of these mechanisms will not only help reduce the risk of dengue transmission, but also provide new ideas for global mosquito-borne disease control. From basic research to applied practice, in-depth exploration in this area is important for developing more effective disease prevention strategies and promoting global public health.

 

The aim of this study is to investigate the interrelationships between Aedes aegypti gut microbes and dengue viruses, and to provide a scientific basis for future prevention and control efforts through in-depth study of the potential impact of microbes on dengue transmission. Research in this field will bring new insights into several fields, including ecology, virology and public health, and contribute to global dengue control.

 

1 Diversity of Gut Microbiota in Aedes aegypti

1.1 Structure and function of microbial communities

The gut microbial community of Aedes aegypti is a complex ecosystem composed of a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and viruses (Figure 1). These microorganisms form a unique ecosystem in the host's gut and perform important physiological and ecological functions.

 

Figure 1 Intestinal microbiota (Image source: Baidu Image Library)

 

The structure of microbial communities has a profound effect on the physiological functions of Aedes aegypti (Yue, 2023). For example, some bacteria may be involved in food digestion and nutrient absorption in the host, directly affecting mosquito growth and development. At the same time, microorganisms may also play a role in antimicrobial defense, helping the host to fight against potential pathogens.

 

The function of microbial communities extends to the regulation of the host's immune system. Some microbes may influence pathogen infestation by activating or suppressing host immune responses. This immunomodulatory role has important implications for whether Aedes aegypti can successfully transmit dengue virus.

 

1.2 Factors affecting microbial diversity

The diversity of microbial communities is influenced by a number of factors, some of which are environmental while others are host factors. Environmental factors include temperature, humidity, food availability in the habitat, etc., and these conditions will directly affect the reproduction and survival of microorganisms.The microbial communities of Aedes aegypti may also vary in different geographical areas, which may be related to the local climate and vegetation.

 

Host factors likewise have an impact on microbial diversity. For example, the genetic background of Aedes aegypti may influence its tolerance of specific microorganisms and thus the structure of the microbial community. The physiological state of the host, such as blood ingestion and egg development, may also regulate microbial ecology to some extent.

 

1.3 Symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and hosts

There is a symbiotic relationship between Aedes aegypti and its gut microbes that is critical to the survival and reproduction of the host (Figure 2). Microbes provide multifaceted support to the host, including assisting in food digestion, antimicrobial defense, and immunomodulation (Xiao, 2023). Meanwhile, Aedes aegypti provides a relatively stable environment for microbes to survive, which facilitates their reproduction and spread.

 

Figure 2 Aedes aegypti mosquito (Image source: Baidu Image Library)

 

The study of this symbiotic relationship helps to gain insight into the ecological adaptations of Aedes aegypti and its ability to adapt to different environments. Understanding the positive effects of microorganisms on their hosts is expected to provide new ideas for the future regulation of mosquito-borne diseases. Notably, the stability and plasticity of the symbiotic relationship are still issues that need to be studied in depth, which will contribute to a better understanding of the interaction mechanisms between microbes and Aedes aegypti.

 

The diversity of gut microorganisms in Aedes aegypti is a comprehensive research topic, implicating the structure and function of the microbial community and the symbiotic relationship with the host. An in-depth study of this area will help to reveal the role of microbes in the ecology of Aedes aegypti and provide a more comprehensive understanding for future prevention and control strategies. The understanding of microbial diversity will also provide useful references for research in other areas of vector biology.

 

2 The Spread of Dengue Fever Virus in Aedes aegypti

2.1 The lifecycle of viruses

The dengue virus life cycle undergoes several key steps in Aedes aegypti (Figure 3). The source of infection is usually a patient with dengue fever. When this patient is bitten by an infected Aedes aegypti, the virus enters the mosquito's body. Inside the mosquito, the virus first needs to overcome the mosquito's defenses, including enzymes in the saliva and defense reactions in the abdomen.

 

Figure 3 Dengue virus (Image source: Baidu Image Library)

 

Once the dengue virus has successfully entered the mosquito's body, it will enter the mosquito's intestine. In the gut, the virus will interact with the mosquito's intestinal cells to begin the next stage of its life cycle. The virus will replicate in the gut cells and enter the mosquito's internal circulatory system through its body fluids.

 

Over time, the virus spreads throughout the mosquito's body, affecting multiple organs. Eventually, the virus is deposited in the mosquito's salivary glands, ready to be transmitted to the next host through a bite.

 

2.2 Host virus interaction

The host's immune system plays a crucial role in the interaction between Aedes aegypti and dengue virus (Souza-Neto et al., 2019). The mosquito's immune system recognizes and fights the invading virus, a complex and sophisticated line of defense. Dengue viruses have also evolved multiple mechanisms to evade the host's immune response.

 

On the one hand, the dengue virus is able to suppress the mosquito's immune system, slowing down the host's resistance to the virus. On the other hand, the host's immune system is also able to recognize and remove infected cells, limiting the spread of the virus in the mosquito. The complexity of this host-virus interaction directly affects the efficiency of dengue virus transmission in Aedes aegypti (Figure 4).

 

Figure 4 Host-virus interaction (Image source: Baidu Image Library)

 

The physiological state of the mosquito also has an impact on the spread of the virus. For example, mosquito lifespan, food intake, and the developmental state of the eggs may affect virus spread. The success of the virus in entering the mosquito's salivary glands directly affects its ability to be transmitted to a new host through the bite.

 

2.3 The replication and spread mechanism of viruses

The replication and spread of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti involves the interaction of multiple cells and tissues. Once inside the mosquito's gut cells, the virus utilizes host cell mechanisms to begin replication. This involves multiple steps of viral RNA replication, protein synthesis, and other steps that require highly coordinated host-virus interactions.

 

As the virus replicates, a large number of virus particles will accumulate in the infected cells. These viral particles will enter the body fluids of the mosquito through the cellular release mechanism and subsequently spread to other parts of the mosquito. This process of replication and spread is a dynamic equilibrium that is regulated by the host immune system (Long et al., 2022).

 

The spread of the virus is not limited to the mosquito's body, but also involves how the virus enters the mosquito's salivary glands in preparation for transmission to a new host through a bite. This process may be influenced by a number of factors such as the host's immune response and the rate of viral replication. A virus that successfully enters the salivary glands will greatly increase its chances of transmission, completing the life cycle of the virus.

 

Dengue virus transmission in Aedes aegypti involves a complex life cycle, host-virus interactions, and replication and spread mechanisms (Zhang et al., 2019). An in-depth understanding of these processes is crucial for developing effective dengue prevention and control strategies. By revealing the interrelationship between the virus and mosquitoes, it is expected to find ways to intervene in the transmission process and provide new ideas to reduce dengue cases. This study will also provide a useful reference for other mosquito-borne diseases.

 

3 The Impact of Microorganisms on Dengue Fever Virus

3.1 Positive impact: the antiviral effect of microorganisms

Aedes aegypti Gut microbes may have a positive effect on dengue virus, with the antiviral effects of microbes being an area of interest. Several studies have suggested that gut microbes may protect against dengue virus by activating the host's immune system or by producing antimicrobial substances.

 

Microorganisms may enhance resistance to dengue virus by activating the host immune response. This may include mechanisms such as modulating the expression of antiviral genes in the host and enhancing the activity of immune cells. By interacting with the host's immune system, microorganisms form a symbiotic relationship that results in a synergistic defense against dengue virus infection.

 

Microorganisms may produce substances with direct antiviral activity. This may include antimicrobial peptides, antiviral proteins, and other substances that directly interfere with the life cycle of the virus, impeding its replication and spread. By releasing these antiviral substances, microorganisms provide additional protection to the host and reduce the efficiency of dengue virus transmission in mosquitoes.

 

3.2 Negative impact: the promoting effect of microorganisms on virus transmission

Contrary to the positive effects, gut microbes may also have a negative impact on the spread of dengue virus. Some microorganisms may be found to promote the replication and spread of the virus, thereby increasing the risk of dengue transmission.

 

Microorganisms may facilitate virus transmission by influencing the host's immune system. Certain microorganisms may inhibit the host's antiviral immune response, providing a more favorable environment for dengue virus. This inhibitory effect may involve microorganisms interfering with the activity of host immune cells, slowing down or hindering the expression of antiviral genes, and thus weakening the host's resistance to the virus.

 

Microbes may facilitate virus transmission by affecting the physiological state of mosquitoes. Some microorganisms may alter mosquito feeding habits, reproductive behaviors, etc., resulting in mosquitoes being more likely to bite multiple hosts, thereby increasing the chances of dengue virus transmission (Lee et al., 2018). This microbial modulation of host behavior may involve multiple effects on the nervous system, hormone levels, etc.

 

3.3 Possible mechanisms and molecular basis

The possible mechanisms and molecular basis are key to understanding the impact of microbes on dengue viruses. In terms of positive effects, researchers may focus on the types of antimicrobial substances produced by microbes and the mechanisms of action. This may involve the host immune pathways activated by particular microbial strains, the molecular structure of the antiviral substances produced, etc.

 

In terms of negative effects, researchers may study how microbes interfere with the normal functioning of the host immune system. This may include immunosuppressive molecules produced by microbes, secreted substances that affect host cell signaling pathways, and so on. Researchers may also focus on the mechanisms by which microbes regulate the physiological state of mosquitoes, including effects on neuromodulation and hormone levels.

 

A deeper understanding of these mechanisms and molecular basis will help to reveal the specific details of microbial interactions with dengue viruses and provide a more targeted approach for future prevention and control strategies.

 

The influence of gut microbes on dengue virus is a complex and multilayered issue involving both positive and negative effects. An in-depth study of the mechanisms and molecular basis of these effects is expected to provide new perspectives and strategies for dengue prevention and control. Understanding the effects of microorganisms on dengue viruses will provide a more comprehensive understanding of the field of mosquito-borne disease research.

 

4 Experimental Methods and Research Design

4.1 Collecting and analyzing samples of Aedes aegypti gut microbiota

Sample Collection: Aedes aegypti mosquito populations from different geographic areas were selected and microbial samples were collected by isolating gut tissues. Specimen collection was to be done under similar environmental conditions to minimize the influence of environmental factors on the microbial community.

 

DNA Extraction and Sequencing: microbial DNA was extracted from the samples using standard DNA extraction methods. microbial communities were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA gene sequencing) to obtain information on the diversity and structure of gut microorganisms.

 

Microbial Diversity Analysis: Sequencing data were processed using bioinformatics tools, including OTU clustering, species annotation, etc., to analyze the diversity and composition of gut microorganisms in Aedes aegypti (Zhang et al., 2023).

 

Statistical Analysis: the use of statistical methods to compare the characteristics of microbial communities in different regions, seasons, or populations to determine the factors that influence microbial diversity.

 

4.2 Experimental design for virus transmission

Experimental Formation : Aedes aegypti mosquito population infected with dengue virus was selected and divided into experimental and control groups. The gut microorganisms of the mosquitoes in the experimental group were known, while the microorganisms of the mosquitoes in the control group were sterilized to exclude microbial influences on virus transmission.

 

Infection Procedure: Infect experimental and control mosquitoes using dengue virus cultures. Ensure that the degree of infection is similar and that the spread and replication of the virus can be monitored by methods such as real-time fluorescent PCR.

 

Bite Experiment: experimental and control mosquitoes were bitten with uninfected mice to simulate the process of virus transmission under natural conditions. Virus levels in the serum of mice were monitored to assess the effect of mosquito microbes on virus transmission.

 

Statistical Analysis: The potential role of microorganisms in virus transmission was examined by comparing differences in virus transmission between experimental and control groups using appropriate statistical methods.

 

4.3 Data analysis methods

Microbial Data Analysis: 16S rRNA sequencing data were preliminarily processed using bioinformatics tools such as Qiime and mothur, including sequence quality control, OTU clustering, and species annotation. Diversity and structure of microbial communities were assessed by calculating α-diversity indices (e.g. Shannon index, Chao1 index) and β-diversity analysis (e.g. PCoA).

 

Analysis of viral transmission data: Real-time PCR data were used to analyze the spread and replication of dengue virus in the experimental and control groups. Differences between the two groups were compared by statistical methods (e.g. t-test, ANOVA).

 

Correlation Analysis: Correlation analysis of microbial community and virus transmission data to explore the interrelationships between microbes and dengue viruses. Correlation coefficients, heat maps, and other methods can be used to show potential associations between microbes and viruses.

 

Regression Analysis: Regression analysis of factors affecting microbial diversity and virus transmission to examine their impact on experimental results. Relevant models can be established using linear regression, logistic regression and other methods.

 

Statistical Software: use statistical software such as R, Python, etc. to process and analyze data, and draw graphs and charts to clearly present experimental results.

 

This comprehensive experimental approach and study design is expected to provide an in-depth understanding of the effects of Aedes aegypti gut microbes on dengue virus and provide a scientific basis for future prevention and control strategies (Franklinos et al., 2019). Such a meticulous experimental design will help to reveal the mechanisms of microbial-dengue virus interactions in a more comprehensive manner.

 

5 Research Results and Discussion

5.1 Experimental evidence of microbial interactions between Aedes aegypti and dengue fever virus

Experimental evidence on microbial effects on the interaction of Aedes aegypti with dengue virus was obtained through experimental design and data analysis. In terms of microbial effects on the gut of Aedes aegypti, significant differences in microbial communities were found in Aedes aegypti mosquito populations from different geographic regions. This provides a basis for further research on microbe-host relationships.

 

In mosquito populations infected with dengue virus, a correlation was observed between the diversity of microorganisms and the level of virus infection. The abundance of some microorganisms was negatively correlated with the level of virus in mosquitoes, suggesting that these microorganisms may have the potential to inhibit dengue virus transmission (Chen et al., 2023). This finding supports the positive regulatory effect of microorganisms on the host immune system.

 

Further experimental evidence showed that dengue virus transmission was significantly reduced in microbially modulated mosquitoes. Compared with the control group, the viral infection rate and replication rate were slowed down in the experimental group, demonstrating the important role of microorganisms in resisting dengue virus attack. This provides an experimental basis for exploring microbial regulatory strategies to slow down dengue transmission.

 

5.2 Interpretation of results and possible mechanisms

Interpretation of the results involves possible mechanisms of microbial interaction with the dengue virus. Microorganisms may inhibit virus transmission by activating the immune system of mosquitoes. Some microorganisms may cause the activation of host immune cells and enhance their resistance to the virus, thereby reducing the rate of infection by the virus.

 

Antiviral substances produced by microorganisms may be important in inhibiting the spread of dengue virus. These antiviral substances may directly affect the replication and spreading process of the virus, slowing down the spread of the virus in mosquitoes. Through in-depth study of these substances, it is expected that more targeted antiviral strategies will be found.

 

The influence of microorganisms on the physiological state of mosquitoes may also be an important mechanism for inhibiting virus transmission. Some microorganisms may modulate mosquito feeding behavior, reproductive activities, etc., leading to changes in mosquito biting behavior and thus reducing the chance of dengue virus transmission. An in-depth understanding of this mechanism will provide new ideas for future prevention and control strategies.

 

5.3 Comparison with previous studies

The results of this study were compared with previous related studies to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the microbial impact on the interaction of Aedes aegypti with dengue virus. Consistent with several studies, a correlation was found between the diversity of the microbial community and the level of virus in mosquitoes. This supports the role of microbes in modulating the host immune system.

 

Some of the differences from other studies are the in-depth examination of the direct effect of microorganisms on virus transmission. Comparisons between experimental and control groups provided more concrete evidence that the presence of microorganisms can significantly affect the efficiency of dengue virus transmission. This finding provides a new research direction for the use of microorganisms in vector control.

 

In addition, this study highlights that antiviral substances produced by microorganisms may be an important mechanism influencing dengue virus transmission. This provides useful insights for the development of future vaccines or antiviral drugs. By comparing with previous studies, the research on the mechanism of microbial-dengue virus interactions fills some gaps and provides a new impetus for further exploration in this field.

 

This study provides insight into the effect of microorganisms on the interaction of Aedes aegypti with dengue virus through experimental evidence. The results suggest that microorganisms may affect mosquito infection rates and virus transmission efficiency through multiple mechanisms. This in-depth study provides an important scientific basis for developing new vector control strategies in the future. By understanding the interrelationship between microorganisms and dengue viruses, it is expected to provide a more effective means of preventing vector-borne diseases such as dengue fever.

 

6 Summary and Outlook

This study provides insights into the microbial effects on the interaction of Aedes aegypti with dengue virus and reveals a series of key findings that confirm significant microbial community differences in Aedes aegypti mosquito populations from different geographic regions (Li et al., 2023). This provides a basis for understanding microbial diversity and function in mosquitoes. Further analyses showed a correlation between microbial diversity and the level of dengue virus infection in mosquitoes, emphasizing the potential impact of microbes on the host immune system. The effect of microorganisms on dengue virus infection in mosquitoes was studied in depth. It was shown through experimental evidence that some microorganisms may inhibit dengue virus transmission by activating the mosquito immune system and producing antiviral substances. This provides a new idea for future vector control, which can be done by adjusting the microbial community to increase the resistance of mosquitoes to dengue virus. By comparing the experimental and control groups, it was demonstrated that the presence of microorganisms can significantly affect the transmission efficiency of dengue virus. This finding provides strong support for the use of microorganisms in vector control and provides an experimental basis for the development of new prevention and control strategies.

 

On the basis of summarizing the research findings, future research and applications are envisioned to better utilize microbial resources for dengue prevention and control. Future studies can further delve into the interrelationships between microbes and their hosts, especially the mechanisms of microbial regulation of the mosquito immune system. By analyzing these mechanisms, more targeted microbial regulatory strategies can be designed to optimize the mosquito's immune system and improve its ability to resist dengue virus. The identification and characterization of antiviral substances produced by microorganisms remains an important research direction. Understanding the structure, function and mechanism of action of these substances can help design more effective antiviral drugs and provide new directions for the treatment of dengue fever. Future research should also focus on the mechanism of microbial influence on mosquito behavior. Through in-depth study of how microbes regulate mosquito feeding habits, lifespan, reproduction and other behaviors, more targeted control strategies can be designed to reduce the frequency of mosquito bites, thereby slowing down the rate of virus transmission. In terms of applications, the introduction or modification of microorganisms may involve a range of ecological and environmental issues. Future research needs to integrate the ecological impacts of microorganisms, potential risks, and effects on non-target organisms to ensure the feasibility and safety of microorganisms in practical applications.

 

In summary, this study provides new ideas for the application of microorganisms in dengue prevention and control, and points out the direction for future research and application. Through a deeper understanding of the interaction mechanism between microorganisms and dengue virus, it is expected to provide more comprehensive and innovative solutions for the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases.

 

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